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An Annotated Bibliography of Gender Dysphoria (1992)

An Annotated Bibliography of Gender Dysphoria (1992)

©1992, 2013 by Dallas Denny

Source: Dallas Denny. (1992). An annotated bibliography of gender dysphoria. Distributed by American Educational Gender Information Service, Inc., Decatur, GA.





An Annotated Bibliography of Gender Dysphoria

By Dallas Denny, M.A.

American Educational Gender Information Service (AEGIS), Inc.



My efforts to catalog materials which I had located in my efforts to learn about gender dysphoria has slowly grown into a huge computer file which will be published in book form in 1993 or 1994 by Garland Press with the title Gender Dysphoria: A Guide to Research.

This bibliography represents only a fraction of the books, book chapters, and journal articles I have found. I have tried to select books and articles of wide general interest, yet which would give considerable coverage of the subjects crossdressing and transsexualism. I hope it will be of use to transgendered persons and their families, as well as to helping professionals.

I learned several things in doing this work. First, the literature does not accurately reflect the diversity of persons with gender conflicts. Papers on transsexualism are much more common than are papers on crossdressing, and almost nothing has been written about transgenderism. Issues of sexual preference and ethnicity have been virtually ignored, as have female-to-male crossdressers and transsexual people. My selection of articles reflects this bias in the literature, for I was drawing from the pool of existing literature.

Second, the citations in scientific books and articles lack standardization, and are notoriously inaccurate besides. I repeatedly found conflicting dates, titles, authors, journal titles, and volume and page numbers. In some instances, the information was incomplete. In many cases, I made my best guess as to the correct listing. Mistakes are inevitable. If you spot an error, I would appreciate you letting me know via a note, so that I can correct it in the master bibliography and in future editions of this book. Please be sure to include title, authors, and year of publication. If it’s a book, list the publisher and city. For journals, list the volume, number, and pages. Chapters from edited books should include the names of the editors, as well as the names of the authors and the title of the book and title of the chapter.

I am in actual possession of those references which are prefaced by an asterisk (*), so those references should be accurate.

Some of the books listed are in print, and can be ordered through any bookstore. The majority of the journals listed and books which are out of print are available at the libraries of major universities. Most can be obtained at your local library through inter-library loan (there may be a charge for this). I have included an appendix to help you locate and order materials.



Gender dysphoria, or the sense of inappropriateness in one’s gender, is a widespread phenomenon, and has been written about extensively in the world’s literature. Yet although the information exists, it can be difficult to find. Books more than four or five years old may be out of print and unavailable from the publishers. When information is found, it may be dated or inaccurate. Library copies may be missing, checked out and not returned, or else stolen, and journals may have missing pages (few topics result in so high a rate of stealing from libraries as does gender dysphoria).

Whether an individual has gender dysphoria, is a family member who wants to learn about a relative who has gender dysphoria, or is a professional who is interested in improving service to clients, it is important that there be a source which will allow access to the wealth of information which has been written. In this bibliography, I have attempted to provide a variety of references without overwhelming the reader. I have annotated many of the listings. Listings are largely limited to materials that I have read or inspected, or that have been vouched for by others, but I have occasionally thrown in a title that seems interesting, but about which I know nothing. I have included but not read many of the novels discussed by Gilbert & Gubar (1989).

Some books which I have not seen may contain bibliographies and/or illustrations.

About the Listings

The listings are in alphabetical order in APA (American Psychological Association) format.

Journal Article

* [1] Derogatis, L,R., Meyer, J.K., & Vazquez, N. [2] (1978). [4] A psychological profile of the transsexual: I. The male. [5] Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, [6] 166[7](4),[8] 234-254. [11]

Chapter in Edited Volume

Duquin, J.[2] (1975).[4] The androgynous advantage.[5] In C. Oglesby (Ed.) [3] Women and Sport, [6] pp. 90-105. [11] Philadelphia: [9] Lea & Tebiger. [10]


Belenky, M.F. [2] (1986). [4] Women’s way of knowing: The development of self, voice, and mind. [5] New York: [9] Basic Books. [10]


1. Denotes that I am in physical possession of the article.

2. Authors’ names

3. Editors’ names

4. Year of publication

5. Title of article, chapter, or book

6. Name of journal or edited book

7. Volume (of journal)

8. Issue (of journal)

9. City of publication (of book)

10. Publisher (of book)

11. Pages



Biographies and Autobiographies



*Ashley, A., & Fallowell, D. (1983). April Ashley’s odyssey. Arena.

As a result of a court ruling in Ashley’s sensational divorce from a British nobleman, transsexual people in England remain legally in the sex of birth, and are not able to legally marry.

*Bogdan, R. (Ed.) (1974). On being different: The autobiography of Jane Fry. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

This is the autobiography of someone who obviously did not pass.

* Conn, C. (1974). Canary: The story of a transsexual. Los Angeles: Nash Publishing Company (reprinted in 1977 by Bantam Books).

Male teen singer becomes female singer. Read this and you’ll know why not to have gender reassignment surgery in Mexico. Illustrations.

* Cossey, C. 1991). My story. London & Boston: Faber & Faber.

The second autobiography by Tula, the international model. Well-written. Illustrations.

* Cowell, R. (1955). Roberta Cowell’s story. New York: Lion Library.

British WW II aviator and race-car driver makes the big switch. Cowell was convinced she spontaneously began to change into a woman. Illustrations.

* Hoyer, N. (1933). Man into woman: An authentic record of a change of sex. The true story of the miraculous transformation of the Danish painter, Einar Wegener (Andreas Sparrer). New York: E.P. Dutton & Co. (reprinted in 1953 by Popular Library).

This book documents the remarkable change of a Danish painter Einar Wegener into Lili Elbe. Illustrations.

* Hunt, N. (1978). Mirror image. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Newspaperman becomes newspaperwoman.

Jay, M. (1986). Geraldine—for the love of a transvestite. Caliban Books.

A love story, of sorts, by the significant other of a crossdresser.

* Jorgensen, C. (1967). Christine Jorgensen: A personal autobiography. New York: Paul S. Ericksson, Inc. (Reprinted in 1968 by Bantam Books).

George becomes Christine: the story of the first transsexual celebrity. Illustrations.

* Morris, J. (1974). Conundrum. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. (Reprinted in 1975 by Coronet Books).

James Morris, a journalist who accompanied Sir Edumund Hillary on the first successful attempt on Mount Everest, becomes Jan. Illustrations.

Morris, J. (1989). Pleasures of a tangled life. New York: Random House.

This latter-day autobiography from Jan Morris does not center on her change of gender. Weird in spots.

Nixon, E. (1965). Royal Spy: The strange case of the Chevalier D’Eon. New York.

Perhaps history’s most famous crossdresser. It’s said that there were bets in both French and English courts about the true sex of D’Eon (who turned out to be male after all).

* Richards, R. (with Ames, J.). (1983). Second serve: The Renee Richards story. New York: Stein & Day.

Physician whose exploits in a woman’s tennis tournament made the six o’clock news. Illustrations.

* Simmons, D.L. (1971). Man into woman: A transsexual autobiography. New York: MacFadden-Bartell, Inc.

Male schoolteacher becomes female socialite who shocks Charleston by wedding a black man. This individual is convinced she became pregnant.

* Smith, P. (1979). Phoebe. Phoebe Smith, P.O. Box 16314, Atlanta, GA 30321.

Phoebe is the publisher of The Transsexual Voice, an Atlanta-based magazine which has survived for more than ten years. Her story is hardly heavy going, but it shows her perseverance in the face of adversity.


Female to Male

Hodgkinson, L. (1989). Michael nee Laura: The story of the world’s first female-to-male transsexual. London: Columbus Books.

The author claims Michael Dillon was the first FTM transsexual person. This hardly seems likely, although Dillon’s surgery was one of the earlier efforts.

Jivaka, L. (1962). Imji Getsul: An English Buddhist in a Tibetan monastery. London: Routledge.

Imji Getsul nee Michael nee Laura. Michael Dillon becomes a monk in Tibet.

* Martino, M. & Martino, H. (1977). Emergence: A transsexual autobiography. New York: Crown Publishers.

Italian Catholic woman becomes nun, becomes man. Illustrations.

Rae, I. (1958). The strange story of Dr. James Barry, army surgeon. London: Longmans Green.

Snyder, C.M. (1962). Dr. Mary Walker: The little lady in pants. New York: Vantage Press.

Biography of a scrappy reformer with a penchant for men’s attire.

* Sullivan, L. (1990). From female to male: The life of Jack Bee Garland. Boston, MA: Alyson Publications, Inc.

Lou Sullivan wrote this book shortly before his death. It documents the escapades of a female-to-male transsexual person in San Francisco in the latter part of the 1800’s, some forty or fifty years before Michael Dillon was born. Illustrations.


Popular Press


* Ackroyd, P. (1979). Dressing up. Transvestism and drag: The history of an obsession. New York: Simon & Schuster.

A good overview, with plenty of historical and cross-cultural material. Illustrations, bibliography.

* Allen, M.P. (1989). Transformations: Crossdressers and those who love them. New York: Dutton.

Sensitive verbal and photographic portraits of crossdressers as human beings.

* Bell-Metereau, R. (1985). Hollywood androgyny. New York: Columbia University Press.

An excellent treatment of gender in films. Illustrations, bibliography.

* Feinbloom, D. (1976). Transvestites and transsexuals: Mixed views. New York: Delacorte Press.

The author’s doctoral dissertation spilled over into this book. Transsexualism seems added as an afterthought. Bibliography.

* Hodgkinson, L. (1987). Bodyshock: The truth about changing sex. London: Columbus Books.

Too-heavily influenced by Janice Raymond. Transsexual people as pseudo-men and pseudo-women. Illustrations, short bibliography.

* Raymond, J. (1979). The transsexual empire: The making of the she-male. Women’s Press.

This book is in the popular section because it belongs here. Its pseudoscientific nature has unfortunately misled many people into thinking there is some rational or data-based reason for Raymond’s bizarre and paranoid anti-transsexual ideas. End notes include bibliographic entries.

* Stuart, K.E. (1983). The uninvited dilemma: A question of gender. Portland, OR: Metamorphous Press.

In my opinion, the best overall discussion of transsexualism. A good book to give to friends and family.

Stuart, K.E. (1983). The uninvited dilemma: A question of gender. Research Supplement. Portland, OR: Metamorphous Press.

Results of the author’s questionnaire.

Talamini, J.T. (1982). Boys will be girls: The hidden world of the heterosexual male transvestite. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, Inc.

Discussion of crossdressing. Lots of typos in the text, as I recall.

* Woodhouse, A. (1989) Fantastic women: Sex, gender and transvestism. Basingstoke: MacMillan Education.

Study of crossdressers.


Textbooks and Scientific Studies


American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 3rd. ed., revised. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.

This is the Big Little Book of mental disorders, used by clinicians when making diagnoses, and by insurance companies, which typically won’t pay if you’re not DSMed.

* Benjamin, H. (1966). The transsexual phenomenon. New York: Warner Books. Recently reprinted by The Human Outreach Institute, Box 368, Kenmore Station, Boston, MA 02215.

The first serious textbook about transsexualism. Still holds up well. Illustrations, bibliography.

* Blanchard, R., & Steiner, B. (Eds.) (1990). Clinical management of gender identity disorders in children and adults. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.

The second textbook by the gender people at the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry. The editors and some of the authors are in serious need of reading Anne Bolin’s In Search of Eve. Chapters on hormonal and surgical treatment, screening, resocialization. Excellent bibliography.

* Bolin, A. (1988). In search of Eve: Transsexual rites of passage. South Hadley, MA: Bergin & Garvey Publishers, Inc.

 Bolin did an ethnomethodological study of a group of male-to-female transsexual persons in a mid-west city. Her findings revealed serious shortcomings of the clinical treatment model. Unfortunately, Bolin’s book has been virtually ignored by clinicians. Bibliography.

* Cauldwell, D.O. (Ed.). (1956). Transvestism: Men in female dress. New York: Sexology Corporation.

Interesting (and early) look at genderbending by the man who coined the term transexual (with one s). Case histories. Illustrations.

* Docter, R.F. (1988). Transvestites and transsexuals: Toward a theory of cross-gender behavior. London: Plenum Press.

Doctor Docter’s discussion of transsexualism is limited to male crossdressers and secondary transsexual people; that is, men who acquire a feminine gender identity only late in life.

* Garber, M. (1991). Vested interests: Cross-dressing and cultural anxiety. New York: Routledge.

Excellent discussion by a Harvard professor of the social significance of crossdressing. Illustrations. End notes include bibliographic entries.

Green, R. (1974). Sexual identity conflict in children and adults. New York: Basic Books, Inc. Reprinted in 1985 by Penguin Books.

A study of extremely feminine boys who were thought to be transsexual, but who were later found to have become (for the most part) heterosexual, bisexual, or homosexual, rather than gender dysphoric. Bibliography.

Green, R,, & Money, J. (Eds.) (1969). Transsexualism and sex reassignment. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

The first edited textbook on transsexualism. Holds up very well. Graphic illustrations of FTM genital surgery, drawings of MTF surgery, other illustrations, bibliography.

* Hirschfeld, M. (1991). Transvestites (Michael A. Lombardi-Nash, translator). Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.

Had this remarkable book been translated into English when it was written in 1910, the study of gender would have been much accelerated. Holds up well. No bibliography, but there are frequent references in the text to books and articles.

Kando, T. (1973). Sex change: The achievement of gender identity among feminized transsexuals. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, Publishers.

This book, which I have not read, grew out of Kando’s doctoral dissertation.

Koryani, E.K. (1980). Transsexuality in the male: The spectrum of gender dysphoria. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, Publishers.

Koryani’s book, like Kando’s, began with a dissertation. Graphic illustrations of male-to-female reassignment surgery.

* Laub, D.R., & Gandy, P. (Eds). (1973). Gender dysphoria syndrome: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Gender Dysphoria Syndrome. Berkeley: Stanford University.

The latest (for the time) research on the subject. Bibliography.

* Lothstein, L. 1983). Female-to-male transsexualism: Historical, clinical and theoretical issues. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

I find Lothstein’s book unbelievably insensitive. Example: his use of feminine pronouns for men and his calling post-operative female-to-male transsexual people by their original names. A good read if you want to get mad. Bibliography.

Lundstrom, B. (1981). Gender dysphoria: A social-psychiatric follow-up study of 31 cases not accepted for sex reassignment. Goteborg: Academiforlaget.

* Newton, E. (1979). Mother camp: Female impersonators in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

An ethnomethodological study of gay crossdressers, and an influence on Anne Bolin. Illustrations, bibliography.

Steiner, B. (Ed.) (1985). Gender dysphoria: Development, research, management. New York: Plenum Press.

The first textbook by the gender people at The Clarke Institute of Psychiatry. The Clarke has peculiar notions about requiring transsexual people to cross-live before hormonal therapy—something I consider very disruptive, and even dangerous.

* Stoller, R.J. (1968). Sex and gender: On the development of masculinity and femininity, Vol. 1. New York: Science House.

Stoller was big on mother-blame theories of transsexualism, but did a lot of good work before his untimely death in late 1991. Bibliography.

* Stoller, R.J. (1973). Splitting: A case of female masculinity. New York: Quadrangle Books.

Stoller, R.J. (1975). Sex and gender, Vol. 2. New York: Science House.

Stoller, R.J. (1975). The transsexual experiment. London: Hogarth Press.

Stoller, R.J. (1985). Presentations of gender. Massachusetts: Yale University Press.

Walinder, J. (1967). Transsexualism: A study of forty-three cases. U. Goteborg, Sweden: Scandinavian University Books.

Walinder, J., & Thuwe, I. (1974). A social-psychiatric follow-up study of 24 sex reassigned transsexuals. U. Goteborg, Sweden: Scandinavian University books.

* Walters, W.A.W., & Ross, M.W. (Eds.) (1986). Transsexualism and Sex reassignment. New York: Oxford University Press.

The state of transsexual treatment Down Under. Good discussion of voice and surgery, among others. Graphic illustrations of MTF genital surgery, bibliography.


Cross-Cultural Studies


Nanda, S. (1989). Neither man nor woman: The Hijras of India. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.

A study of the eunuchs of India, many of whom live and work as women. Recommended by Anne Bolin.

Roscoe, W. (1990). The Zuni Man-Woman. University of New Mexico Press.

Williams, W.L. The spirit and the flesh.

Crossdressing in the culture of North American Indians, told from the perspective of a gay male. Anne Bolin also speaks highly of this one.


Manhood and Womanhood, Masculinity and Femininity


Bly, R. (1991). Iron John: A book about men. New York: Addison-Wesley.

Bly is a guru of the men’s movement, but his type of masculinity seems to center around finding father through storytelling and beating on drums.

Brownmiller, S. (1984). Femininity. New York: Simon & Schuster.

 The author looks at the phenomenon of femininity in our culture. Very revealing. Good bibliography.

* Devor, H. (1969). Gender blending: Confronting the limits of duality. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Devor writes about women who are commonly mistaken for men. Illustrations, bibliography.

* Kessler, S.J., & McKenna, W. (1978). Gender: An ethnomethodological approach. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Reprinted in 1985 by The University of Chicago Press.

Kessler and McKenna rely heavy on transsexualism to develop their theory of gender. Excellent. Bibliography.

Moir, A., & Jessel, D. (1991). Brain sex. Secaucus, NJ: Lyle Stuart, Inc.

Discussion of fetal masculinization and feminization of the brain. Caroline Cossey and others assure me that this is a very good book.

* Money, J., & Ehrhardt, A.A. (1972). Man and woman, boy and girl: The differentiation and dimorphism of gender identity. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Excellent discussion of fetal development, intersexuality, and the difference between sex and gender. Illustrations, bibliography.

* Money, J., & Tucker, P. (1975). Sexual signatures: On being a man or a woman. Boston: Little Brown & Co.

Popular treatment of gender and sex. Illustrations, bibliography.

Robinson, J. (1990). Body packaging: A guide to human sexual display. Elysium Growth Press.

I haven’t read this, but it looks fascinating. Profusely illustrated.

Singer, J. (1977). Androgyny: Toward a new theory of sexuality. Garden City, NJ: Anchor.


Books About Drag


Baker, R. (1968). Drag: A history of female impersonation on the stage. London: Trinton Books.

* Bulliet, C.J. (1928). Venus Castina: Famous female impersonators, celestial and human. New York: Covici, Friede. Reprinted in 1956 by Bonanza Books, and in 1989 by The Human Outreach Institute, Box 368, Kenmore Station, Boston, MA 02215.

Kirk, K., & Heath, E. (1984). Men in frocks. London: GMP Publishers, Ltd.

Post WWII camp in Britain. Illustrations.


Books and Booklets from the Gender Community


The Brussles experience. Ingersoll Gender Center, 1812 East Madison, #106, Seattle Washington, 98122-2843.

Excellent 16-pager for those considering sex reassignment surgery with Dr. Michael Seghers in Belgium. Illustrations.

* Denny, D. (1990). Deciding what to do about your gender dysphoria: Some considerations for those who are thinking about gender reassignment. AEGIS, P.O. Box 33724, Decatur, GA 30033.

Things one should consider before making the decision to change gender.

* Denny, D. (1991). Discovering who you are: A guide to self-assessment for persons with gender dysphoria. AEGIS, P.O. Box 33724, Decatur, GA 30033.

Discussion of crossdressing and transsexualism, including DSM III-R diagnostic criteria. Bibliography.

* Denny, D. (1991). Dealing with your feelings: A guide to coming out for persons with gender dysphoria. AEGIS, P.O. Box 33724, Decatur, GA 30033.

Elizabeth, Sr. M. (1990). Legal aspects of transsexualism: 1990 edition. International Foundation for Gender Education, Box 367, Wayland, MA 01778.

The only comprehensive guide to legal issues for transsexual people. Regularly updated. Cites case law.

Gender dysphoria: A sensitive approach. Ingersoll Gender Center, 1812 East Madison, #106, Seattle Washington, DC 98122-2843.

* Kirk, S. (1991). Hormones: 1991 edition. International Foundation for Gender Education, Box 367, Wayland, MA 01778.

The only book about cross-gender hormone therapy. Excellent.

* Kirk, S. (ND). How to be a good medical consumer. International Foundation for Gender Education, P.O. Box 367, Wayland, MA 01778.

A much-needed pamphlet for a minority which includes a great many poor medical consumers.

* Laing, A. (1987). Speaking as a woman. Creative Design Services, Box 1263, King of Prussia, PA 19406.

A useful book about speaking in a feminine manner.

Prince, V. (1967). The transvestite and his wife. Los Angeles: Chevalier Publications. Available from International Foundation for Gender Education, P.O. Box 367, Wayland, MA 01778.

Very useful for the heterosexual male crossdresser and his significant other.

* Prince, V. (1971). How to be a woman though male. Los Angeles. Chevalier Publications. Available from International Foundation for Gender Education, P.O. Box 367, Wayland, MA 01778.

Virginia wrote this discussion of feminine presentation a long time ago, but except for changes in fashion, her points remain valid.

Prince, V. (1976). Understanding crossdressing. Los Angeles: Chevalier Publications. Available from International Foundation for Gender Education, P.O. Box 367, Wayland, MA 01778.

Roberts, J. Art and illusion: A guide to crossdressing, 2nd ed. Creative Design Services, Box 1263, King of Prussia, PA 19406.

How to create the illusion of femininity, even if you ordinarily look like Magilla Gorilla.

Roberts, J. Art and illusion companion. Creative Design Services, Box 1263, King of Prussia, PA 19406.

* Rudd, P. (1990). Crossdressing with dignity: The case for transcending gender lines. PM Publishers, 1811 Crutchfield, Katy, TX 77449.

Issues of self-acceptance for crossdressers.

* Rudd, P. (1989). My husband wears my clothes. PM Publishers, 1811 Crutchfield, Katy, TX 77449.

A wife of a crossdresser tells how she dealt with her husband’s crossdressing.

Stevens, J.A. (1990). From masculine to feminine and all points in between. Creative Design Services, Box 1263, King of Prussia, PA 19406.

An overview of transsexual transition. Many helpful hints.

* Stringer, J.A. (1990). The transsexual’s survival guide: To transition and beyond. Creative Design Services, P.O. Box 1263, King of Prussia, PA 19406.

“How I did it” help from someone who made it successfully through the gender wars.

* Sullivan, L. (1990). Information for the female-to-male cross-dresser and transsexual. Ingersoll Gender Center, 1812 East Madison, #106, Seattle Washington 98122-2843.

This book, little more than a pamphlet in 1980, has been updated regularly, most recently after Lou’s untimely death.The definitive handbook for the female-to-male transsexual person. Illustrations, bibliography.

The Trinidad experience. Ingersoll Gender Center, 1812 East Madison, #106, Seattle, Washington, 98122-2843.

Handy little pamphlet for those considering sex reassignment surgery with Dr. Stanley Biber in Trinidad, Colorado.


Journal Articles and Book Chapters




* Peterson, R., Imperato-McGinley, J., Gautier, T., et al. (1979). Male pseudohermaphroditism due to steroid-5-alpha reductase deficiency. American Journal of Medicine, 62, 170-191.

A rare form of inherited pseudohermaphroditism in which children from the Dominican Republic have ambiguous (but basically female) genitalia are raised as girls until puberty, when they suddenly develop male genitalia and secondary sex characteristics. The interesting thing about these individuals is that almost all of them seem to make the adjustment to being men with little or no difficulty. Photographs.





* Bem, S.L. (1974). The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 42(2), 155-162. /A/An/


Bem realized that masculinity and femininity, which had been often considered to be the bipolar ends of a continuum, were, rather, independent dimensions. That is, one can score high on measurements of both masculinity and femininity.




* Brown, G.R. (1990). The transvestite husband. Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality, 24(6), 35-42.

* Person, E., & Ovesey, L. (1978). Transvestism: New perspectives. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 6(3), 301-323.

* Person, E., & Ovesey, L. (1984). Homosexual cross-dressers. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 12(2), 167-186.

* Prince, C.V., & Bentler, P.M. (1972). Survey of 504 cases of transvestism. Psychological Reports, 31, 903-917.

Findings show the majority of crossdressers (i.e., subscribers to Transvestia) to be heterosexual, from intact homes, married with children, and wanting to increase their crossdressing activities.


* Wise, T.N. (1985). Coping with a transvestite mate: Clinical implications. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 11(4), 293-300.

Examines the coping styles of twenty significant others of crossdressers.




Attitudes Toward Transsexualism

* Franzini, L.R., & Casinelli, D.L. (1986). Health professionals’ factual knowledge and changing attitudes towards transsexuals. Social Science and Medicine, 22(5), 535-539.

Things have improved since Green et al.’s 1969 study (see below). Psychiatrists had more liberal views than did general practitioners; however, the low return rate of the questionnaire suggests that the result of this study should be interpreted with caution.

* Gordon, E.B. (1991). Transsexual healing: Medicaid funding of sex reassignment surgery. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 20(1), 61-99.

The author concludes that SRS is neither unnecessary nor experimental, and that exclusion from Medicaid funding is improper.

* Green, R., Stoller, R.J., & Macandrew, C. (1969). Attitudes toward sex transformation procedures. Archives of General Psychiatry, 15, 178-182.

Green et al. surveyed physicians, and found that many would apparently prefer that the transsexual patient die rather than to treat them via surgery.

* Meerloo, J.A.M. (1967). Change of sex and collaboration with the psychosis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 124(2), 263-264.

Transsexualism as psychosis; surgery as cop-out.

* Socarides, C.W. (1976). Beyond sexual freedom: Clinical fallout. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 30(3), 385-397.

Socarides was one of the most vocal opponents of the hormonal and surgical treatment of transsexual people. Read this and see why.


Outcome Studies

* Blanchard, R., Legault, S., & Lindsay, W.R.N. (1987). Vaginoplasty outcome in male-to-female transsexuals. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 13(4), 265-275.

They all wanted more depth. Just kidding. Vaginal depth averaged 8.3 cm, but most subjects reported satisfactory depth for coitus. The authors hypothesize that coitus is accomplished by assumption of postures that limit penetration.

* Blanchard, R., Steiner, B.W., Clemmensen, L.H., & Dickey, R. (1989). Prediction of regrets in postoperative transsexuals. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 34(1), 43-45.

Findings are that heterosexual males are more likely than homosexual males or females to regret sex reassignment surgery.

* Blanchard, R., Steiner, B.W., & Clemmensen, L.H. (1985). Gender dysphoria, gender reorientation, and the clinical management of transsexualism. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 53(3), 205-304.

This outcome study found that gender reorientation (approximation of the status of the desired gender) resulted in psychological improvement in transsexual men and women, and that postoperative satisfaction and psychological adjustment were high.

* Brown, G.R. (1990). A review of clinical approaches to gender dysphoria. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 51(2), 57-64.

Good overview, with a useful table of characteristics which correlate with good and poor outcomes of sex reassignment surgery.

Green R., & Fleming, D.T. (1990). Transsexual surgery follow-up: Status in the 1990s. In J. Bancroft, C.M. Davis, & D. Weinstein (Eds.), Annual Review of Sex Research. Society for the Scientific Study of Sex, P.O. Box 208, Mount Vernon, IA.

* Lothstein, L.M. (1982). Sex reassignment surgery: Historical, bioethical, and theoretical issues. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139(4), 417-426.

Review paper of outcome studies. Lothstein concludes, “The reported 68%-86% overall success rates for sex reassignment surgery must be viewed cautiously.” Lothstein’s conclusions must be viewed cautiously.

* Meyer, J.K., & Reter, D. (1979). Sex reassignment: Follow-up. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36(9), 1010-1015.

This seriously flawed study, or rather, the publicity which was attendant upon its release, resulted in the closing of the much-respected gender clinic at Johns Hopkins University, and the eventual closing of gender programs all around the country.

* Sorensen, T. (1981). A follow-up study of operated transsexual females. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 64, 50-64.

* Sorensen, T. (1981). A follow-up study of operated transsexual males. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 63(5), 486-503.


* Van Putten, T., & Fawzy, F.I. (1976). Sex conversion surgery in a man with severe gender dysphoria: A tragic outcome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33(6), 751-753.

“Oops! I didn’t mean to have that done. Can you change me back?”


Hormonal Therapy


* Asscheman, H., Gooren, L.J., & Eklund, P.L. (1989) Mortality and morbidity in transsexual patients with cross-gender hormone treatment. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, 38(9), 869-873. Also presented as a paper at the 11th Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association Symposium, Cleveland, Ohio, 20-23 September.

… and just when you thought it was safe to go in the water…

* Futterweit, W. (1980). Endocrine management of transsexual. New York State Journal of Medicine, 1260-1265.

Good basic article on hormonal treatment.

* Meyer, W.J., III, Finkelstein, J.W., Stuart, C.A., Webb, A., Smith, E.R., Payer, A.F., & Walker, P.A. (1981). Physical and hormonal evaluation of transsexual patients during hormonal therapy. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 10(4), 121-138.

Hormonal therapy (for both FTM and MTF people) used in the gender program at Galveston.

* Meyer, W.J., III, Webb, A., Stuart, C.A., Finkelstein, J.W., Lawrence, B., & Walker, P.A. (1986). Physical and hormonal evaluation of transsexual patients: A longitudinal study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 15(2), 121-138.

The authors measured hormonally-induced changes in physical characteristics and blood chemistry of both FTM and MTF transsexual clients across time.

* Prior, J.C., Vigna, Y.M., & Watson, D. (1989). Spironolactone with physiological female steroids for presurgical therapy of male-to-female transsexualism. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 18(1), 49-57.

With Spironolactone, an antiandrogen, it is possible to achieve feminization with much lower doses of female hormones than with estrogens alone or estrogen/progesterone combinations.


Female-to-Male Surgeries

* Biemer, E. (1988). Penile construction by the radial arm flap. Clinics in Plastic Surgery, 15(3), 425-430.

The radial forearm flap is a significant milestone in penile construction and reconstruction.

* Gilbert, D.A., Horton, C.E., Terzis, J.K., Devine, C.J., Jr., Winslow, B.H., & Devine, P.C. (1986). New concepts in phallic reconstruction. Annals of Plastic Surgery, 18(2), 128-136.

See next entry.

* Gilbert, D.A., Winslow, B.H., Gilbert, D.M., Jordan, G.H., & Horton, C.E. (1988). Transsexual surgery in the genetic female. Clinics in Plastic Surgery, 15(3), 471-487.

Dr. Gilbert is a pioneer in the use of microsurgical techniques in genital construction and reconstruction.

* Lindsay, W.R. (1979). Creation of a male chest in female transsexuals. Annals of Plastic Surgery, 3(1), 39-46.

Chest wall reconstruction is an often-neglected but critical area of interest for new men.


Male-to-Female Surgeries

Hair Surgery

* Fleming, R.W., & Mayer, T.G. (1985). Scalp flaps—reconstruction of the unfavorable result in hair replacement surgery. Head and Neck Surgery, 7, 315-331.

See next entry.

* Fleming, R.W., & Mayer, T.G. (1990). New concepts in hair replacement. Archives of Otolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery, 115, 278-279.

Scalp flaps and scalp reduction surgeries can have dramatic and immediate results, even when hair loss has been extensive. Drs. Fleming and Mayer are the world’s foremost authorities on these procedures.



* Bouman, F.G. (1988). Sex reassignment surgery in male to female transsexuals. Annals of Plastic Surgery, 21(6), 526-531. /F/S/

Drawings and photos of MTF SRS. Outcome data.

* Broadbent, T.R., & Woolf, R.M. (1977). Congenital absence of the vagina. Reconstruction without operation. British Journal of Plastic Surgery, 30, 118-122.

Use of dilators of increasing size resulted in significant increases in vaginal depth in genetic females with congenitally inadequate vaginas. This should serve as a lesson for those with neovaginas.

* Foerster, D.W. (1979). Construction of natural appearing female genitalia in the male transsexual. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 64(3), 306-312.

Inversion vaginoplasty. Drawings and photos. Outcome data.

* Laub, D.R., Laub, D.R., II, & Biber, S. (1988). Vaginoplasty for gender confirmation. Clinics in Plastic Surgery, 15(3), 463-470.

A better name for sex reassignment surgery is gender confirmation surgery, Laub’s term. This article describes the different surgeries available: penile inversion, skin graft, and rectosigmoid.

* Novak, F., Kos, L., & Plesko, F. (1978). The advantages of the artificial vagina derived from sigmoid colon. Acta Obstetrics and Gynecology Scandinavica, 57, 794.

Use of the sigmoid colon allow greater vaginal depth and natural lubrication, but at a greater risk for STD’s.

* Turner, U.G., Edlich, R.F., & Edgerton, M.T. (1978). Male transsexualism—a review of genital surgical construction. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 132(2), 119-133.


Graphic drawings of inversion vaginoplasty.




* Boo-Chai, K. (1969). The complications of augmentation mammoplasty by silicone injection. British Journal of Plastic Surgery, 22, 281-285.

Injected silicone, especially in the breast area, is a time bomb, often culminating in eventual bilateral mastectomy.

* Chastre, J., Brun, P., Soler, P., Basset, F., Trouillet, J.L., Fagon, J.Y., Gilbert, C., & Hance, A.J. (1987). Acute and latent pneumonitis after subcutaneous injections of silicone in transsexual men. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 135(1), 236-240.

If you ever considered injections of silicone (they’re illegal!), you won’t after reading this article.


Voice Surgery


* Donald, P.J. (1982). Voice change surgery in the transsexual. Head and Neck Surgery, 4(5), 433-437.

* Mahieu, H.F., & Schutte, H.K. (1989). New surgical techniques for voice improvement. Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 246(5), 397-402.


Theory and Treatment of Transvestism and Transsexualism


* Bak, R.C., & Stewart, W.A. (1974). Fetishism, transvestism, and voyeurism: A psychoanalytic approach. In S. Arieti & E. Brady (Eds.), American Handbook of Psychiatry, (2nd ed.), Vol. 2, pp. 352-363. New York: Basic Books.

Read all about Richard Raskin’s “cure.” Renée Richards had the last laugh.

* Barlow, D.H., Reynolds, E.J., & Agras, W.S. (1973). Gender identity change in a transsexual. Archives of General Psychiatry, 28, 569-576.

See next entry.

* Barlow, D.H., Abel, G.G., & Blanchard, E.B. (1979). Gender identity change in transsexuals: Follow-up and replications. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36(9), 1001-1007.

The behavioral approach of Barlow, et al. shows promise for the nonsurgical and nonhormonal treatment of transsexualism, but unfortunately, although it has been replicated, it hasn’t been systematically followed up.

* Evins, S.E., Whittle, T., & Rous, S.N. (1977). Self-emasculation: Review of the literature, report of a case and outline of the problems of management. Journal of Urology, 118(5), 775-776.

It is well known that transgendered males often attempt, and sometimes succeed at, autocastration.

* Gelder, M.G., & Marks, I.M. (1969). Aversion treatment in transvestism and transsexualism. In R. Green & J. Money (Eds.), Transsexualism and sex reassignment, pp. 383-413. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

A good review, if over twenty years old. Aversion treatment has shown temporary success, but in my opinion the severity of the treatment is not warranted by either crossdressing or transsexualism.

* Hamburger, C., Sturup, G.K., & Dahl-Iversen, E. (1953). Transvestism: Hormonal, psychiatric, and surgical treatment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 12(6), 391-396.

This is the original English-language report of Christine Jorgensen’s treatment.

* Laub, D.R., & Fisk, N. (1974). A rehabilitation program for gender dysphoria syndrome by surgical sex change. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 53(4), 388-403.

Description of the gender clinic at Stanford. Drawings, photos. Outcome data.

* Levine, S., & Lothstein, L. (1981). Transsexualism or the gender dysphoria syndromes. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 7(2), 85-114.

Transsexualism, the desire to change gender, can occur for any number of reasons; these underlying reasons are the gender dysphoria syndromes.

* Lothstein, L.M. (1979). Group therapy with gender-dysphoric patients. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 33(1), 67-81.

Something is rotten in Denmark. Lothstein’s description of the behavior of the members of his group suggests that it was filled with psychotic drag queens rather than persons with gender dysphoria.

* Money, J. (1991). Serendipities on the sexological pathway to research in gender identity and sex reassignment. Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 4(1), 101-113.

A retrospective of Money’s distinguished career.

* Money, J., & Walker, P. (1979). Counseling the transsexual. In J. Money & H. Musaph (Eds.), Handbook of Sexology, pp. 1289-1301. Amsterdam: Exerpta Medica.

Excellent discussion of the counseling needs of the transsexual person.

* Nelson, C., Patich, D., & Steiner, B.W. (1976). Medicolegal aspects of transsexualism. Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal, 21(8), 557-564.

Discussion of changes of legal documents, marriage, wills, especially as is the case in Canada.

* Oates, J.M., & Decakis, G. (1983). Speech pathology considerations in the management of transsexualism—A review. British Journal of Disorders of Communication, 18(3), 139-151.

Good discussion of the differences between male and female voices.

* Person, E. (1986). Paraphilias and gender identity disorders. In Psychiatry, Vol. 1, pp. 447-465. New York: Basic Books.

A good paper for learning about DSM III-R classifications of transgendered persons.

* Person E., & Ovesey, L. (1974). The transsexual syndrome in males: I. Primary transsexualism. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 28, 4-20.

According to the authors, primary transsexual people have gender conflicts throughout their lives without deviation into either homosexuality or heterosexuality (see next entry)

* Person, E., & Ovesey, L. (1974). The transsexual syndrome in males: II. Secondary transsexualism. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 28, 174-193.

Secondary transsexualism in the male, according to Person & Ovesey, arises from either transvestism or effeminate homosexuality,

* Spensley, J., & Barter, J.T. (1973). Adolescent boys who wear girls’ clothes. Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality, 7(6), 136-156.

My goodness! Does this actually happen? 

* Steiner, B.W., Satterberg, J.A., & Muir, C.F. (1978). Flight into femininity: The male menopause? Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal, 23(6), 405-410.

Many middle-aged men with seemingly unremarkable adjustments suddenly announce that they want to be women. The authors suggests that this is often a transient phenomenon due to stress.

* Stoller, R.J. (1982). Near miss: “Sex change” treatment and its evaluation. In M.R. Zales (Ed.), Eating, sleeping, and sexuality, pp. 258-283. New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Good overview of transsexualism, with a particularly good discussion of Meyer & Reter (1979).




* Gilbert, S.M., & Gubar, S. (1989). Cross-dressing and re-dressing: Transvestism as metaphor. In S.M. Gilbert, & S. Gubar, S., No man’s land: The place of the woman writer in the twentieth century. Volume 2: Sexchanges. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Discussion of crossdressing and gender change in literature.


 Assorted Magazine Articles


Chin, P. (1989, 20 February). Death discloses Billy Tipton’s strange secret: He was a she. People Weekly, 31, 95.

Billy Tipton, a jazz musician, has been “claimed” by both lesbians and transgenderists, but he was obviously a man, and therefore transsexual.

A doctor tells why he’ll no longer treat transsexuals. (1976, 26 October). The National Observer, 14.

East German women’s success stirs U.S. anger. (1976, 1 August). New York Times, 3, 5.

* Edgren, G. (1991). The transformation of Tula. Playboy, 38(9), 102-105.

Caroline Cossey caused more positive attitude change in the general population by showing her body than if she had appeared on a hundred television talk shows.

Hubbard, K. (1988, 23 May). Shocked and chagrined, the Jegous of France close ranks after two of their sons become daughters. People Weekly, 29, 91.

Changing one’s gender does not happen in a vacuum.

Jones, J. (1989, 4 May). Christine Jorgensen, 62, dies of cancer. Los Angeles Times, 108, I3.

Chris attributed her cancer to family history rather than to a lifetime on estrogens.

* Latham, A., & Grenadier, A. (1982, October). The ordeal of Walter/Susan Cannon: Biography of a transsexual. Psychology Today, 16, 64.

Cannon, a psychologist, became “Susie” late in life.

Lindholm, C., & Lindholm, C. (1982, September). The erotic sorcerers (male cross-dressing in various cultures). Science Digest, 90, 78.

Lithgow, J. (1982, September). My life as a woman. Mademoiselle, 46-47.

Lithgow, who played the part of a transsexual ex-professional football player in the movie “The World According to Garp,” tells what the experience was like.

* Mano, D.K. (1980). It’s no fun being a girl. Playboy, 27(11), 167.

D. Keith, who is not a crossdresser, becomes preoccupied with his newly shaven legs while researching Fantasia Fair for Hef.

* Morris, M. (1984, November). My father’s life: That my father is now a woman is beside the point. Esquire, 102, 92-101.

Jan Morris’ son makes some good points, as the title would suggest.

New York Times. (1966, 22 November). Johns Hopkins pioneers U.S. sex-change surgery.

Announcement of opening of the famous gender clinic.

O’Halloran, T. (1985, 20 September). How the Sun torments transsexuals. New Statesman, 110, 7.

Reed, S. (1985, 1 July). After a sex change and several eclipses, Wendy Carlos treads a new digital moonscape. People Weekly, 24, 83-85.

Walter Carlos, pioneer of electronically synthesized music (remember “Switched-on Bach” and the soundtrack from “A Clockwork Orange”?), now Wendy, continues her music.

* Rich, B.R. (1991, December). Gender bending. Mirabella, 70-75.

Friendly article quotes Marjorie Garber, author of Vested interests, and sources from within the gender community.

The sex change conspiracy. (1979, December). Psychology Today.

* Tayman, J. (1991, December). The sex change capital of America. Gentlemen’s Quarterly, 61(12), 220-227, 299-300.

Unfriendly article: transsexual people as men in drag, magically transformed by the surgeon’s knife.

Woodman, S. (1990, December/January). Renée Richards takes stock. New York Woman, 118-121.

Second thoughts from the doc.




Anderson, S. (1923). The man who became a woman. In S. Anderson, Horses and men: Tales, long and short, from our American life. New York: B.W. Heubsch.

Bates, H.E. (1973). The triple echo. New York: Penguin Books.

This book was the basis for the film “Soldiers in Skirts.” Man in disguise to avoid the draft gradually develops gender dysphoria. 

Berger, T. (1973). Regiment of women. New York: Popular Library.

Bizarre tale of reversed gender roles in the near future, by the author of Little Big Man.

Brophy, B. (1969). In transit. London: GMP Publishers, Inc. Reprinted in 1970 by G.P. Putnam’s in New York.

Androgynous protagonist is unsure of his/her sex.

Brown, G. (1966). I want what I want. London: Werdenfeld & Nicolson.

Confused and frustrated teen living in original gender role.

Cohler, D.K. (1983). Freemartin: A murder mystery. New York: Little, Brown & Co.

Farrell, J.T. (1937). Just boys. In J.T. Farrell, The short stories of James T. Farrell. New York: Vanguard Press.

Fielding, H. (1960). The female husband. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.

Friedman, A. (1972). Hermaphrodeity. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Genet, G. (1964). The thief’s journal. New York: Grove.

Transgender behavior within the homosexual subculture in France.

Gould, L. (1976). A sea change. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Grand, S. (1893). The heavenly twins. New York: Cassell.

Hall, R. (1928). The well of loneliness. New York: Avon.

Biography of an individual characterized as lesbian, but who was undoubtedly gender dysphoric.

Hemingway, E. (1986). The Garden of Eden. New York: Scribner’s.

Unfinished novel that shows that Hemingway’s early years in skirts left a mark on him.

Irving, J. (1976). The world according to Garp. NY: E.P. Dutton.

Contains sensitive depiction of football player who makes the big leap. Played by John Lithgow in the movie (see his article, “My life as a woman,” also listed).

Jong, E. (1980). Fanny. New York: North American Library.

Lawrence, D.H. (1984). “The fox.” In D.H. Lawrence, Four short novels. Franklin Library.

LeGuin, U. (1969). The left hand of darkness. New York: Walker.

Aliens alternate sexes in this excellent SF novel.

Moore, C.L. (1969). Jurel of Joiry. New York: Paperback Library.

First of a series of fantasy novels with a transgendered protagonist

Oates, J.C. (1982). A bloodsmoor romance. New York: E.P. Dutton.

Phillips, R. (1978). The pregnant man. Garden City, NJ: Doubleday.

Roth, P. (1972). The breast. New York: Holt.

Russ, J. (1987). The female man. Beacon Press.

Selby, H., Jr. (1964). Last exit to Brooklyn. NY: Grove Weidenfeld.

Tale of anomie with transgendered characters.

Swift, E. (1988). Splendora. Secaucus, NJ: Meadowland Books.

Tale of a cross-living gay man. Funny, with colorful small-town characters

Vidal, G. (1968). Myra Breckenridge. Boston: Little Brown, & Co.

Another tale of a gay man making the change. Proof that gay men often misunderstand transsexualism

West, N. (1963). The dream life of Balso Snell, in N. West, Two novels. New York: Noonday Press.

Woolfe, V. (1928). Orlando: A biography. New York: Harcourt Brace & Company.

Adventures of an androgenous character. Orlando is sometimes a man, sometimes a woman.


The above material should be more than enough to get you started in your quest to learn more about gender dysphoria. You’ll find other books and journal articles in the bibliographies and reference lists.

The listing of an article or book in the bibliography does not mean I consider it “good.” Indeed, I have purposefully listed some that I consider to be real stinkers—as you have no doubt already realized. A few, like Hamburger et. al’s account of Christine Jorgensen’s treatment, are included primarily for historical purposes.

You should read with caution, taking into account the date the material was written and the biases of the authors.



How To Locate Written Materials on Gender Dysphoria

Although this bibliography includes but a small fraction of the better-known books and articles which have been written on the subjects of crossdressing and transsexualism, many persons interested in looking up the subject have an extremely difficult time locating materials. This appendix will help you to find the materials listed in this booklet, and other books and articles as well.



Public Libraries

The first place most people look for information is the public library. The card catalogs of most libraries have a few books about crossdressing or transsexualism. Locating those books, however, can constitute a problem. Much of the time, they are not on the shelves. Sometimes they have been checked out, but at other times, there’s no record why they aren’t there. They’re just missing. Library staff may be able to help (if you’re not ashamed to ask), but when books have been stolen, there’s little the librarian can do, except to reorder the book (if it’s still in print) or try to obtain it through interlibrary loan.

The Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature will direct you to popular articles about crossdressing and transsexualism, but you will find that articles are often razored or torn out (even medical libraries sometimes have pages cut from medical journals).

You should check with the librarian about ways to locate materials. The library may have computerized databases such as PsychLit which will pull up pages of references for you and print them or save them to a diskette. The stacks may contain reference books which list materials and resources. Don’t be shy. The librarian won’t call the police or run away screaming if you ask for information about gender dysphoria. Ask. If you’re embarrassed, you can always say you have a friend who is a crossdresser or transsexual person or that you’re doing a paper for a class you are taking.


University Libraries

The libraries of colleges and universities generally have many more books than public libraries. There are so many, in fact, that browsing is generally not practical. You may see lots of interesting titles, but the chance of you surreptitiously finding material related to gender dysphoria are slim, unless you search the shelves on either side of a book you have looked up in the card catalog.

Most university libraries now have on-line card catalogs. You need only enter a title, author, or subject in the computer, and it will show you a list of matching materials and where to locate them. These systems are great time savers, as they will even tell you if the book is checked out. If you have trouble operating the computer, ask a librarian for assistance.

University libraries usually have online databases, as well, containing tens of thousands of articles. Learn to use them, for they will save you hours of labor.

Many universities have more than one library, and you may find that you will have to visit several in order to obtain the information you want. Universities with medical schools have the best libraries of all, for much of the literature of transsexualism and crossdressing can be found in medical journals.

University libraries sometimes have access fees. Some limit access to the stacks, and others limit only checkout privilidges. Most do not allow journals to leave the building, but you’ll find copy machines.


Interlibrary Loan

Most libraries have an interlibrary loan policy, and, for a small fee, will obtain books and articles you need. This is especially handy when you need an article in a regional magazine or journal, of are in need of obtaining books which are out of print.



If you find more than one or two books about gender in a bookstore (even a good) one, you’re lucky. If you see a book you want, you should pick it up, for it will quite likely not be there the next time you look.

Most bookstores will special order books for you. You may be required to leave a deposit. Ask for Books in Print. You can look up books by author, title, or subject. Handy search terms are transsexualism, transvestism, crossdressing, and change of sex.

Unless they are exceptionally popular, books have only a limited time in print. After that, they cannot be ordered from the publisher. Most bookstores will search for out-of-print titles for a small fee. If you want to do the legwork, you may find that title you want in a used bookstore (you’ll have your best luck in large, cosmopolitan cities). Ivan Stormgart, P.O. Box 470883, San Francisco, CA 94147-0883 (Telephone 415-941-6746) specializes in out-of-print books about gender and sexuality.

The Gender Community

The Gender Community consists of a conglomeration of support groups, resource agencies, and individuals who keep in contact by newsletters, magazines, computer bulletin boards, and conventions. Although it is for all practical purposes invisible to those on the outside, the community can offer tremendous support for persons with gender dysphoria.



There are an increasing number of regional and national events in which persons with gender dysphoria congregate. Often, vendors will offer a selection of books and magazines. If you are attending such a convention, be sure to take along plenty of money so you can stock up on reading material.


Newsletters, Magazines, and Books

Many support groups and advocacy organizations publish newsletters, and almost all are available by subscription. Some are quite good, approaching the gender-related magazines in quality. Most have advertisements for service providers, support groups, and conventions.

The gender community publishes a variety of magazines, including Tri-Ess’ Femme Mirror, IFGE’s TV-TS Tapestry, Crossdresser’s Quarterly, Creative Design Service’s International TranScript, and our own Chrysalis Quarterly.

The gender community also publishes a variety of books. Many organizations offer a selection of their own material and the material of others. AEGIS, for instance, carries several books in addition to our own, and IFGE carries many fine books, magazines, and videos. Here are some sources for books and magazines:


The International Foundation for Gender Education

P.O. Box 367
Wayland, MA 01778
Phone 617-899-2212


(We especially recommend that you pick up a copy of IFGE’s TV-TS Tapestry.)


Creative Design Services

P.O. Box 1263
King of Prussia, PA 19406


Ingersoll Gender Center

Ingersoll Center
1812 E. Madison
Ste. 106
Seattle, WA 98122-2843
Phone 206-329-6651